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Applebee, A. N., & Langer, J. A. (2011). " EJ" Extra: A Snapshot of Writing Instruction in Middle Schools and High Schools. The English Journal, 100(6), 14-27.
Applebee, A. N., Langer, J. A., Nystrand, M., & Gamoran, A. (2003). Discussion-based approaches to developing understanding: Classroom instruction and student performance in middle and high school English. American Educational Research Journal, 40(3), 685-730.
Arthurs, D. M. (2022). Writing coherence and supporting details through graphic organizers (Doctoral dissertation, Caldwell University).
Bañales, G., Ahumada, S., Graham, S., Puente, A., Guajardo, M., & Muñoz, I. Teaching writing in grades 4–6 in urban schools in Chile: a national survey.
- The purpose of this mainly descriptive study was to investigate teachers’ perceptions about how they teach writing as well as their beliefs about preparation and efficacy to teach this skill. It also examined if preparation and efficacy beliefs along with teaching experience (years teaching the language arts) predicted teachers’ reported writing practices.
Bangert-Drowns, R. L., Hurley, M. M., & Wilkinson, B. (2004). The effects of school-based writing-to-learn interventions on academic achievement: A meta-analysis. Review of Educational Research, 74(1), 29-58.
Beach, R., & Doerr-Stevens, C. (2009). Learning argument practices through online role-play: Toward a rhetoric of significance and transformation. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 52(6), 460-468.
Bloome, D., Beierle, M., Grigorenko, M., & Goldman, S. (2009). Learning over time: Uses of intercontextuality, collective memories, and classroom chronotopes in the construction of learning opportunities in a ninth-grade language arts classroom. Language and Education, 23(4), 313-334.
Caplan, N. A. (2020). Genres and conflicts in MBA writing assignments. Graduate Writing Across the Disciplines, 337.
- This chapter describes a needs analysis conducted by one pre-matriculation program that teaches international MBA students speaking English as a Second Language (ESL).
Cisneros, N. A. (2021). Indigenous Girls Write, Right!? Unsettling Urban Literacies with Indigenous Writing Pedagogies. Urban Education, 00420859211003933.
Conley, M. (2008). Cognitive strategy instruction for adolescents: What we know about the promise, what we don't know about the potential. Harvard Educational Review, 78(1), 84-106.
Dawson, C. (2021). Creating Dialogic Spaces through Collaborative Writing. THE ENGLISH RECORD, 61.
De La Paz, S. (2005). Effects of historical reasoning instruction and writing strategy mastery in culturally and academically diverse middle school classrooms. Journal of Educational Psychology, 97(2), 139.
De La Paz, S., Felton, M., Monte-Sano, C., Croninger, R., Jackson, C., Deogracias, J. S., & Hoffman, B. P. (2014). Developing historical reading and writing with adolescent readers: Effects on student learning. Theory & Research in Social Education, 42(2), 228-274.
De Smedt, F., Graham, S., & Van Keer, H. (2020). “It takes two”: The added value of structured peer-assisted writing in explicit writing instruction. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 60, 101835.
- High-quality writing instruction is vital to supporting developing writers as they learn to plan, compose, and revise text. It is equally important that such instruction enhances students’ self-efficacy for writing as well as their motivation to write. The findings of the present study corroborate and extend the limited number of prior studies illustrating the surplus value of peer-assisted writing in explicit writing instruction programs.
Ferretti, R. P., Lewis, W. E., & Andrews-Weckerly, S. (2009). Do goals affect the structure of students’ argumentative writing strategies?. Journal of Educational Psychology, 101(3), 577.
Ferretti, R. P., MacArthur, C. A., & Dowdy, N. S. (2000). The effects of an elaborated goal on the persuasive writing of students with learning disabilities and their normally achieving peers. Journal of Educational Psychology, 92(4), 694.
Gillespie, A., & Graham, S. (2014). A meta-analysis of writing interventions for students with learning disabilities. Exceptional children, 80(4), 454-473.
Givler, A. (2022). First Year Teachers’ Perspectives of Their Self-Efficacy to Teach Writing in Elementary (Doctoral dissertation, Walden University).
Graham, S. (2019). Changing how writing is taught. Review of Research in Education, 43(1), 277-303.
Graham, S., Ahumada, S., Bañales, G., Puente, A., Guajardo, M., & Muñoz, I. (2020). Intermediate-Grade Teachers’ Adaptations for Weaker Writers: A National Survey in Urban Schools in Chile. Journal of Learning Disabilities. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1177/0022219420941795.
- Teaching adaptations are needed to support the weakest writers. This study focuses on the types of adaptations that teachers use as well as the how frequently they made writing instructional adaptations for their weakest writers. The Chilean teachers in this study reportedly made adaptations for weaker writers in their class more often than teachers in studies conducted in other countries, including the United States.
Graham, S., Bruch, J., Fitzgerald, J., Friedrich, L., Furgeson, J., Greene, K., Kim, J., Lyskawa, J., Olson, C.B., & Smither Wulsin, C. (2016). Teaching secondary students to write effectively (NCEE2017-4002). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance (NCEE), Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved from the NCEE website: http://whatworks.ed.gov.
- This report offers three evidence-based recommendations for teaching 6-12th grade students to write effectively, with copious examples and useful tools for educators to implement in their classrooms.
Graham, S. & Hebert, M. "Writing to read: A meta-analysis of the impact of writing and writing instruction on reading." Harvard Educational Review 81.4 (2011): 710-744.
- Reading is critical to students' success in and out of school. One potential means for improving students' reading is writing. In this meta-analysis of true and quasi-experiments, Graham and Herbert present evidence that writing about material read improves students' comprehension of it; that teaching students how to write improves their reading comprehension, reading fluency, and word reading; and that increasing how much students write enhances their reading comprehension. These findings provide empirical support for long-standing beliefs about the power of writing to facilitate reading.
Graham, S., Liu, X., Aitken, A., Ng, C., Bartlett, B., Harris, K. R., & Holzapfel, J. (2018). Effectiveness of literacy programs balancing reading and writing instruction: A meta‐analysis. Reading Research Quarterly, 53(3), 279-304.
Graham, S., McKeown, D., Kiuhara, S., & Harris, K. R. (2012). A meta-analysis of writing instruction for students in the elementary grades. Journal of Educational Psychology, 104(4), 879.
Graham, S., & Perin, D. (2007). A meta-analysis of writing instruction for adolescent students. Journal of Educational Psychology, 99(3), 445.
Graham, S., Wolbers, K., Dostal, H., & Holcomb, L. (2021). Does teacher self-efficacy predict writing practices of teachers of deaf and hard of hearing students?. The Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education.
Hall, A. H., Gao, Q., Guo, Y., & Xie, Y. (2022). Examining the effects of kindergarten writing instruction on emergent literacy skills: a systematic review of the literature. Early Child Development and Care, 1-13.
Harris, K. R., & Graham, S. (2017). Self-regulated strategy development: Theoretical bases, critical instructional elements, and future research. In Design Principles for Teaching Effective Writing (pp. 119-151). Brill.
- SRSD is a multi-component, multi-characteristic instructional approach addressing both complex learning and complex, diverse learners. SRSD focuses on supported and explicit instruction, deliberately and repeatedly supporting students (motivation, positive attitudes towards writing and self-efficacy), individualized instruction, self-pacing, and long-term maintenance and generalization. Meta-analyses have shown that SRSD is an effective methods for teaching writing strategies to students of various writing levels.
Harris, K. R., & McKeown, D. (2022). Overcoming Barriers and Paradigm Wars: Powerful Evidence-Based Writing Instruction. Theory Into Practice, (just-accepted).
Hebert, M., & Savaiano, M. E. (2020). A survey of the writing instructional practices of Nebraska teachers of students with visual impairments. Exceptionality, 1-16.
Hillocks, G. (2005). At last: The focus on form vs. content in teaching writing. Research in the Teaching of English, 40(2), 238-248.
Hsiang, T. P., Graham, S., & Yang, Y.-M. (2020). Teachers’ practices and beliefs about teaching writing: a comprehensive survey of grades 1 to 3 teachers. Reading and Writing. doi: 10.1007/s11145-020-10050-4.
- This study reports teachers' beliefs and practices during writing instruction in grades 1-3. Teachers' self-efficacy during writing instruction predicted how often teachers used specific instructional procedures.
Kang, E. Y., McKenna, J. W., Arden, S., & Ciullo, S. (2016). Integrated reading and writing interventions for students with learning disabilities: A review of the literature. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 31(1), 22-33.
Kennedy, E. (2008). TEACHING IN THE LINGUISTICALLY DIVERSE WRITING CLASSROOM: VOICES OF OUR STUDENTS. The Journal of the Professor Magda Vasillov Center for Teaching and Learning, 1, 17.
Kim, J. S., Olson, C. B., Scarcella, R., Kramer, J., Pearson, M., van Dyk, D., ... & Land, R. E. (2011). A randomized experiment of a cognitive strategies approach to text-based analytical writing for mainstreamed Latino English language learners in grades 6 to 12. Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness, 4(3), 231-263.
Kiuhara, S. A., Graham, S., & Hawken, L. S. (2009). Teaching writing to high school students: A national survey. Journal of Educational Psychology, 101(1), 136.
Langer, J. A. (2001). Beating the odds: Teaching middle and high school students to read and write well. American Educational Research Journal, 38(4), 837-880.
Langer, J. A., & Applebee, A. N. (1986). Chapter 5: Reading and writing instruction: toward a theory of teaching and learning. Review of Research in Education, 13(1), 171-194.
Li, T., Creer, S. D., Arner, T., Roscoe, R. D., Allen, L. K., & McNamara, D. S. (2022). Participatory Design of a Writing Analytics Tool: Teachers’ Needs and Design Solutions. Companion Proceedings of the 12th, 15.
Litman, C., & Greenleaf, C. (2018). Argumentation tasks in secondary English language arts, history, and science: Variations in instructional focus and inquiry space. Reading Research Quarterly, 53(1), 107-126.
Liu, Q., & Meimban, C. Embracing Multimodal Writing Tasks in ESOL Classes.
Lunsford, K. J. (2002). Contextualizing Toulmin's model in the writing classroom: A case study. Written Communication, 19(1), 109-174.
Maamuujav, U. & Krishnan, J. & Collins, P. (2019). The utility of infographics in L2 writing classes: A practical strategy to scaffold writing development. TESOL Journal. 10.1002/tesj.484.
MacArthur, C. A., Jennings, A., & Philippakos, Z. A. (2019). Which linguistic features predict quality of argumentative writing for college basic writers, and how do those features change with instruction?. Reading and Writing, 32(6), 1553-1574.
Mason, L. H., & Brady, S. (2021). Promoting executive functions during the writing process in Executive Functions and Writing. Oxford University Press.
Matuchniak, T., Olson, C. B., & Scarcella, R. (2014). Examining the text-based, on-demand, analytical writing of mainstreamed Latino English learners in a randomized field trial of the Pathway Project intervention. Reading and Writing, 27(6), 973-994.
McNamara, D. S., Crossley, S. A., & Roscoe, R. (2013). Natural language processing in an intelligent writing strategy tutoring system. Behavior Research Methods, 45(2), 499-515.
McKnight, L. (2020). Teaching writing by formula: Empowerment or exclusion?. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 1-15.
Midgette, E., Haria, P., & MacArthur, C. (2008). The effects of content and audience awareness goals for revision on the persuasive essays of fifth-and eighth-grade students. Reading and Writing, 21(1-2), 131-151.
Mlynář, J. (2022). Lifting the pen and the gaze: embodied recruitment in collaborative writing. Text & Talk.
Monte-Sano, C., De La Paz, S., Felton, M., Piantedosi, K. W., Yee, L. S., & Carey, R. L. (2017). Learning to teach disciplinary literacy across diverse eighth-grade history classrooms within a district-university partnership. Teacher Education Quarterly, 44(4), 98-124.
- We see several promising signs in teachers' analysis, including an increasing focus on key aspects of disciplinary writing, attention to evaluate and historical thinking, consideration of the quality of students' work, and skill in identifying students' needs.
Nasution, D. M., Pulungan, A. H., & Ginting, S. A. (2020, November). The Effect of Collaborative Writing Technique and Brainstorming Technique on Students Writing Achievement. In The 5th Annual International Seminar on Transformative Education and Educational Leadership (AISTEEL 2020) (pp. 366-370). Atlantis Press.
Newell, G. E., Bloome, D., Kim, M. Y., & Goff, B. (2019). Shifting epistemologies during instructional conversations about “good” argumentative writing in a high school English language arts classroom. Reading and Writing, 32(6), 1359-1382.
Nienkark, L. (2021). Contextualizing Instruction for Struggling Writers. Pedagogy, 21(1), 170-178.
Nussbaum, E. M., & Schraw, G. (2007). Promoting argument-counterargument integration in students' writing. The Journal of Experimental Education, 76(1), 59-92.
Olson, C. B., Kim, J. S., Scarcella, R., Kramer, J., Pearson, M., van Dyk, D. A., ... & Land, R. E. (2012). Enhancing the interpretive reading and analytical writing of mainstreamed English learners in secondary school: Results from a randomized field trial using a cognitive strategies approach. American Educational Research Journal, 49(2), 323-355.
Olson, C. B., & Land, R. (2007). A cognitive strategies approach to reading and writing instruction for English language learners in secondary school. Research in the Teaching of English, 269-303.
Olson, C. B., Matuchniak, T., Chung, H. Q., Stumpf, R., & Farkas, G. (2017). Reducing achievement gaps in academic writing for Latinos and English learners in Grades 7–12. Journal of Educational Psychology, 109(1), 1.
Olson, C. B., Scarcella, R., & Matuchniak, T. (2015). English learners, writing, and the Common Core. The Elementary School Journal, 115(4), 570-592.
Reznitskaya, A., Anderson, R. C., & Kuo, L. J. (2007). Teaching and learning argumentation. The Elementary School Journal, 107(5), 449-472.
Rogers, L. A., & Graham, S. (2008). A meta-analysis of single subject design writing intervention research. Journal of Educational Psychology, 100(4), 879.
Saddler, B., & Graham, S. (2005). The effects of peer-assisted sentence-combining instruction on the writing performance of more and less skilled young writers. Journal of Educational Psychology, 97(1), 43.
Sanchez, D. (2022). Exploring how to improve students' writing. California State University San Marcos. (Thesis)
Scarcella, R., Olson, C.B., & Matuchniak, T. (2018). Literacy development and second language writing. The TESOL Encyclopedia for English Language Teaching. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118784235.eelt0526
Smit, J., Lesley, M., Baker‐Beach, W., & Stewart, E. (2022). Investigating meaningful impact in adolescent writing achievement within a high‐stakes testing context. Journal of Research in Reading.
Svanes, I. K., & Andersson-Bakken, E. (2021). Teachers’ use of open questions: investigating the various functions of open questions as a mediating tool in early literacy education. Education Inquiry, 1-20.
Syamsuarni, S., Jufrizal, J., & Rozimela, Y. (2020). The effect of collaborative paragraph writing technique toward students’ writing skill on recount paragraph at grade X of Sman 1 Batang Anai. International Journal of Educational Dynamics, 3(1), 6-13.
Toister, N. A. (2020). Storyboarding as a Prewriting Activity for Second Language Learners. TESOL Working Paper Series, 18, 126-138.
Troia, G. A., & Graham, S. (2002). The effectiveness of a highly explicit, teacher-directed strategy instruction routine: Changing the writing performance of students with learning disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 35(4), 290-305.
Troia, G. A., Brehmer, J. S., Glause, K., Reichmuth, H. L., & Lawrence, F. (2020). Direct and Indirect Effects of Literacy Skills and Writing Fluency on Writing Quality Across Three Genres. Education Sciences, 10(11), 297.
VanDerHeide, J., & Newell, G. E. (2013). Instructional chains as a method for examining the teaching and learning of argumentative writing in classrooms. Written Communication, 30(3), 300-329.
van Driel, J., van Drie, J., & van Boxtel, C. (2022). Writing about historical significance: The effects of a reading-to-write instruction. International Journal of Educational Research, 112, 101924.
Vinci, A. M. (2022). Testing the Efficacy of a Creative Writing-Based Curriculum in English Composition Courses (Doctoral dissertation, Wilmington University (Delaware)).
Wale, B. D., & Bogale, Y. N. (2021). Using inquiry-based writing instruction to develop students’ academic writing skills. Asian-Pacific Journal of Second and Foreign Language Education, 6(1), 1-16.
Wilcox, T. (2022). A Case Study of Service-Learning in Upper Elementary: Implications for Writing Instruction.
Wingate, U., & Harper, R. (2020). Completing the first assignment: Writing processes use by a successful and an unsuccessful student. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 100948.
Wong, B. Y., Kuperis, S., Jamieson, D., Keller, L., & Cull-Hewitt, R. (2002). Effects of guided journal writing on students' story understanding. The Journal of Educational Research, 95(3), 179-191.
Yacoub, M. " Yay! I didn’t know that I was a poet:" The Efficacy of Writing Poetry in ESL Classes from a Translingual Approach.
Yarrow, F., & Topping, K. J. (2001). Collaborative writing: The effects of metacognitive prompting and structured peer interaction. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 71(2), 261-282.
Zammit, K., Rhodes, J., & Milby, T. (2022). International approaches to writing instruction: a comparison of curriculum in Australia and the USA. The Australian Journal of Language and Literacy, 1-18.