Read about research in writing-related topics for K-12 conducted at or funded by the National WRITE Center.
Try: Carol Booth Olson, Young-Suk Grace Kim
Examining the Impact of a Cognitive Strategies Approach on the Argument Writing of Mainstreamed English Learners in Secondary School
Carol Booth Olson, Undraa Maamuujav, Jacob Steiss, and Huy Chung
The stagnation of National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) Writing scores demonstrates the need for research-based instruction that improves writing for all students, especially English learners. In this article, we synthesize the literature on effective instructional practices for this diverse group of learners and describe how these strategies are leveraged in a teacher professional development program that has been previously shown to improve students’ argument writing.
Perspective taking and language features in secondary students' text-based analytical writing
October 18, 2022
Minkyung Cho, Young-Suk Grace Kim, and Jiali Wang
This study examined the extent of perspective taking and language features represented in secondary students’ text-based analytical writing. We investigated (1) whether perspective taking is related to writing quality, accounting for language features in writing; (2) whether students’ English learner status is related to perspectives represented in their writing; and (3) whether the relation between perspective taking and writing quality differs by the level of language features.
Keywords: perspective taking, dual perspective taking, analytic writing, language features
Crosslinguistic Transfer of Higher Order Cognitive Skills and Their Roles in Writing for English-Spanish Dual Language Learners
October 21, 2022
Kim, Young-Suk Grace, Wolters, Alissa, Mercado, Janet, and Quinn, Jamie
We investigated the dimensionality and relations between L1 (a speaker’s first language) and L2 (a speaker’s second language) writing skills in narrative and informational genres and higher order cognitive skills—inference, perspective taking, and comprehension monitoring—for Spanish–English dual language learners in primary grades. Dimensions of written composition and higher order cognitive skills were examined, comparing nine alternative models.
Keywords: Second Language Learning, Native Language, Bilingualism, Spanish, English (Second Language)
Do Written Language Bursts Mediate the Relations of Language, Cognitive, and Transcription Skills to Writing Quality?
February 27, 2022
Kim, Young-Suk Grace
In this study, we examined burst length and its relation with working memory, attentional control, transcription skills, discourse oral language, and writing quality, using data from English-speaking children in Grade 2 (N = 177; M[subscript age] = 7.19). Results from structural equation modeling showed that burst length was related to writing quality after accounting for transcription skills, discourse oral language, working memory, and attentional control.
Keywords: Written Language, Short Term Memory, Attention Control, Writing Skills, Writing Evaluation, Elementary
Expanding the Direct and Indirect Effects Model of Writing (DIEW): Reading-Writing Relations, and Dynamic Relations as a Function of Measurement/Dimensions of Written Composition
Kim, Young-Suk Grace and Graham, Steve
Within the context of the Direct and Indirect Effects Model of Writing (Kim & Park, 2019), we examined a dynamic relations hypothesis, which contends that the relations of component skills, including reading comprehension, to written composition vary as a function of dimensions of written composition. Specifically, we investigated: (1) whether higher-order cognitive skills (i.e., inference, perspective taking, and monitoring) are differentially related to...
Keywords: Writing (Composition), Thinking Skills, Reading Comprehension, Oral Language, Literacy, Grade 2, Elementary
Co-Occurrence of Reading and Writing Difficulties: The Application of the Interactive Dynamic Literacy Model
January 8, 2022
Kim, Young-Suk Grace
This article presents the application of the interactive dynamic literacy (IDL) model (Kim, 2020a) toward understanding difficulties in learning to read and write. According to the IDL model, reading and writing are part of communicative acts that draw on largely shared processes and skills as well as unique processes and skills. As such, reading and writing are dissociable but interdependent systems that have hierarchical, interactive, and dynamic relations.
Keywords: comorbidity, interactive dynamic literacy model, dyslexia, reading disability, writing, writing disability
Dimensions of text-based analytical writing of secondary students
Accepted 29 November 2021
Jacob Steiss, Jenell Krishnan, Young-Suk Grace Kim, and Carol Booth Olson
To understand text-based analytical writing quality, we examined (a) the dimensions of this
genre, (b) relations between these dimensions, (c) how student demographics factors predict
performance in the identified dimensions of writing quality, and (d) how the identified di-
mensions predict overall writing quality.
Keywords: Analytical writing, Writing quality, Writing dimensions, Secondary student
Do children with reading difficulties experience writing difficulties? A meta-analysis.
Graham, Steve, Aitken, A. Angelique, Hebert, Michael, Camping, April, Santangelo, Tanya, Harris, Karen R., Eustice, Kristi, Sweet, Joseph D., Ng, Clarence
In this meta-analysis, we examined whether children identified with reading difficulties (RD) evidence writing difficulties. We included studies comparing children with RD with (a) typically developing peers matched on age (k = 87 studies) and (b) typically developing younger peers with similar reading capabilities (k = 24 studies). Children identified with RD scored lower on measures of writing than their same age peers (g = −1.25)...
Keywords: Meta-analysis, Reading, Reading Difficulties, Writing
Does perspective taking matter for writing? Perspective taking in source‑based analytical writing of secondary students
Accepted 1 February 2021
Minkyung Cho, Young‑Suk Grace Kim, and Carol B. Olson
Perspective taking, one’s knowledge of their own mental and emotional states and inferences about others’ mental and emotional states, is an important skill for writing development. In the present study, we examined how perspective taking is expressed in writing and how it is related to overall writing quality. We analyzed seventh graders’ source-based analytical essays (N=195)...
Keywords: Perspective taking, Adolescent writing, Higher order thinking skill, Writing quality